Тема: Spin (physics) - Wikipedia
I know how to calculate them and such stuff, but I wanted to know what they actually signify. I have a vague idea that they have something to do with an electron's position in an atom but what do all of them mean? Any help would be greatly appreciated!
Principle quantum number ($n$) - indicates the orbital size. Electrons in atoms reside in atomic orbitals. These are referred to as $s,p,d,f.$ type orbitals. A $1s$ orbital is smaller than a $2s$ orbital. A $2p$ orbital is smaller than a $3p$ orbital. This is because orbitals with a larger $n$ value are getting larger due to the fact that they are further away from the nucleus. The principle quantum number is an integer value where $n$ = 1,2,3..