Тема: Dissociative Disorders: Etiology and Introduction.

Dissociative identity disorder, formerly called multiple personality disorder, is a type of dissociative disorder characterized by ≥ 2 personality states.

Dissociative identity disorder (formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder or MPD) is defined in the DSM-IV-TR as the presence of two or more personality states or distinct identities that repeatedly take control of one’s behavior. The patient has an inability to recall personal information. The extent of this lack of recall is too great to be explained by normal forgetfulness. The disorder cannot be due to the direct physical effects of a general medical condition or substance. [1]

DID entails a failure to integrate certain aspects of memory, consciousness and identity. Patients experience frequent gaps in their memory for their personal history, past and present. Patients with DID report having severe physical and sexual abuse, especially during childhood. The reports of patients with DID are often validated by objective evidence. [1]

.the evidence is now voluminous that there are not a handful or a hundred but thousands of cases of MPD diagnosed today, and it almost invariably owes its existence to prolonged early childhood abuse, usually sexual, and of sickening severity. Nicholas Humphrey and I investigated MPD several years ago [ Speaking for Our Selves: An Assessment of Multiple Personality Disorder, Raritan , 9, pp. 68-98] and found it to be a complex phenomenon that extends far beyond individual brains and the sufferers.

Illinois has moved to discipline a prominent psychiatrist accused of convincing a patient that she was a child molester, a cannibal who ate human flesh meatloaf and the high priestess of a satanic cult.

From a psychological perspective, dissociation is a protective activation of altered states of consciousness in reaction to overwhelming psychological trauma. After the patient returns to baseline, access to the dissociative information is diminished. Psychiatrists have theorized that the memories are encoded in the mind but are not conscious, ie, they have been repressed.

The essential feature of dissociative amnesia is an inability to recall important personal information that is more extensive than can be explained by normal forgetfulness. Remembering such information is usually traumatic or produces stress.

How would you like a stronger immune system or better sleep? Action between the sheets can help you get all of this and more.

Red, itchy, and scaly skin? Discover common skin conditions like psoriasis, rashes, and more in the collection of medical photos.

3

Aperson with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), or a similar form of Other Specified Dissociative Disorder (previously called Dissociative Disorder Not.

Got this from psychology today Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is a severe condition in which two or more distinct identities, or personality states, are present in—and alternately take control of—an individual. The person also experiences memory loss that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness. It is a disorder characterized by identity fragmentation rather than a proliferation of separate personalities. The disturbance is not due to the direct psychological effects of a substance or of a general medical condition, yet as this once rarely reported disorder has become more common, the diagnosis has become controversial. Some believe that because DID patients are easily hypnotized, their symptoms are iatrogenic, that is, they have arisen in response to therapists suggestions. Brain imaging studies, however, have corroborated identity transitions in some patients. DID was called Multiple Personality Disorder until 1994, when the name was changed to reflect a better understanding of the condition—namely, that it is characterized by a fragmentation, or splintering, of identity rather than by a proliferation, or growth, of separate identities. DID reflects a failure to integrate various aspects of identity, memory and consciousness in a single multidimensional self. Usually, a primary identity carries the individual s given name and is passive, dependent, guilty and depressed. When in control, each personality state, or alter, may be experienced as if it has a distinct history, self-image and identity. The alters characteristics—including name, reported age and gender, vocabulary, general knowledge, and predominant mood—contrast with those of the primary identity. Certain circumstances or stressors can cause a particular alter to emerge. The various identities may deny knowledge of one another, be critical of one another or appear to be in open conflict. Symptoms The individual experiences two or more distinct identities or personality states (each with its own enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and self). The reported range of identities is from 2 to more than 100. Half of the reported cases include individuals with 10 or fewer. At least two of these identities or personality states recurrently take control of the person s behavior. Each may exhibit its own distinct history, self-image, behaviors, and, physical characteristics, as well as possess a separate name. Particular identities may emerge in specific circumstances. Alternative identities are experienced as taking control in sequence, one at the expense of the other, and may deny knowledge of one another, be critical of one another or appear to be in open conflict. Transitions from one identity to another are often triggered by psychosocial stress. Frequent gaps are found in memories of personal history, including people, places, and events, for both the distant and recent past. Different alters may remember different events, but passive identities tend to have more limited memories whereas hostile, controlling or protective identities have more complete memories. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, passivity, dependence and guilt may be present. In childhood, problem behavior and an inability to focus in school are common. Self-destructive and/or aggressive behavior may take place. Visual or auditory hallucinations may occur. The average time that elapses from the first symptom to diagnosis is six to seven years. The disturbance is not due to the direct psychological effects of a substance or of a general medical condition. Causes Why some people develop DID is not entirely understood, but they frequently report having experienced severe physical and sexual abuse, especially during childhood. Though the accuracy of such accounts is disputed, they are often confirmed by objective evidence. Individuals with DID may also have post-traumatic symptoms (nightmares, flashbacks, and startle responses) or Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Several studies suggest that DID is more common among close biological relatives of persons who also have the disorder than in the general population. As this once rarely reported disorder has grown more common, the diagnosis has become controversial. Some believe that because DID patients are highly suggestible, their symptoms are at least partly iatrogenic— that is, prompted by their therapists probing. Brain imaging studies, however, have corroborated identity transitions. Treatment The primary treatment for DID is long-term psychotherapy with the goal of deconstructing the different personalities and uniting them into one. Other treatments include cognitive and creative therapies. Although there are no medications that specifically treat this disorder, antidepressants, anti-anxiety drugs or tranquilizers may be prescribed to help control the mental health symptoms associated with it.

Dissociative identity disorder (formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder or MPD) is defined in the DSM-IV-TR as the presence of two or more personality states or distinct identities that repeatedly take control of one’s behavior. The patient has an inability to recall personal information. The extent of this lack of recall is too great to be explained by normal forgetfulness. The disorder cannot be due to the direct physical effects of a general medical condition or substance. [1]

DID entails a failure to integrate certain aspects of memory, consciousness and identity. Patients experience frequent gaps in their memory for their personal history, past and present. Patients with DID report having severe physical and sexual abuse, especially during childhood. The reports of patients with DID are often validated by objective evidence. [1]

.the evidence is now voluminous that there are not a handful or a hundred but thousands of cases of MPD diagnosed today, and it almost invariably owes its existence to prolonged early childhood abuse, usually sexual, and of sickening severity. Nicholas Humphrey and I investigated MPD several years ago [ Speaking for Our Selves: An Assessment of Multiple Personality Disorder, Raritan , 9, pp. 68-98] and found it to be a complex phenomenon that extends far beyond individual brains and the sufferers.

Illinois has moved to discipline a prominent psychiatrist accused of convincing a patient that she was a child molester, a cannibal who ate human flesh meatloaf and the high priestess of a satanic cult.

From a psychological perspective, dissociation is a protective activation of altered states of consciousness in reaction to overwhelming psychological trauma. After the patient returns to baseline, access to the dissociative information is diminished. Psychiatrists have theorized that the memories are encoded in the mind but are not conscious, ie, they have been repressed.

The essential feature of dissociative amnesia is an inability to recall important personal information that is more extensive than can be explained by normal forgetfulness. Remembering such information is usually traumatic or produces stress.

How would you like a stronger immune system or better sleep? Action between the sheets can help you get all of this and more.

Red, itchy, and scaly skin? Discover common skin conditions like psoriasis, rashes, and more in the collection of medical photos.

Previously known as multiple personality disorder, dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a condition in which a person has more than one distinct identity or personality state. At least two of these personalities repeatedly assert themselves to control the affected person''''''''''''''''s behavior. Each personality state has a distinct name, past, identity, and self-image.

Because the alters alternate in controlling the patient''''''''''''''''s consciousness and behavior, the affected patient experiences long gaps in memory gaps that far exceed typical episodes of forgetting that occur in those unaffected by DID.

How would you like a stronger immune system or better sleep? Action between the sheets can help you get all of this and more.

Red, itchy, and scaly skin? Discover common skin conditions like psoriasis, rashes, and more in the collection of medical photos.

Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written for the health care professional.

People are always surprised to hear that I’ve always wanted to be a physician. It’s just something I’ve always known, ever since I was a young child..

Dissociative identity disorder (formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder or MPD) is defined in the DSM-IV-TR as the presence of two or more personality states or distinct identities that repeatedly take control of one’s behavior. The patient has an inability to recall personal information. The extent of this lack of recall is too great to be explained by normal forgetfulness. The disorder cannot be due to the direct physical effects of a general medical condition or substance. [1]

DID entails a failure to integrate certain aspects of memory, consciousness and identity. Patients experience frequent gaps in their memory for their personal history, past and present. Patients with DID report having severe physical and sexual abuse, especially during childhood. The reports of patients with DID are often validated by objective evidence. [1]

.the evidence is now voluminous that there are not a handful or a hundred but thousands of cases of MPD diagnosed today, and it almost invariably owes its existence to prolonged early childhood abuse, usually sexual, and of sickening severity. Nicholas Humphrey and I investigated MPD several years ago [ Speaking for Our Selves: An Assessment of Multiple Personality Disorder, Raritan , 9, pp. 68-98] and found it to be a complex phenomenon that extends far beyond individual brains and the sufferers.

Illinois has moved to discipline a prominent psychiatrist accused of convincing a patient that she was a child molester, a cannibal who ate human flesh meatloaf and the high priestess of a satanic cult.

From a psychological perspective, dissociation is a protective activation of altered states of consciousness in reaction to overwhelming psychological trauma. After the patient returns to baseline, access to the dissociative information is diminished. Psychiatrists have theorized that the memories are encoded in the mind but are not conscious, ie, they have been repressed.

The essential feature of dissociative amnesia is an inability to recall important personal information that is more extensive than can be explained by normal forgetfulness. Remembering such information is usually traumatic or produces stress.

7

Dissociative identity disorder (formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder or MPD) is defined in the DSM-IV-TR as the presence of two or more personality states or distinct identities that repeatedly take control of one’s behavior. The patient has an inability to recall personal information. The extent of this lack of recall is too great to be explained by normal forgetfulness. The disorder cannot be due to the direct physical effects of a general medical condition or substance. [1]

DID entails a failure to integrate certain aspects of memory, consciousness and identity. Patients experience frequent gaps in their memory for their personal history, past and present. Patients with DID report having severe physical and sexual abuse, especially during childhood. The reports of patients with DID are often validated by objective evidence. [1]

.the evidence is now voluminous that there are not a handful or a hundred but thousands of cases of MPD diagnosed today, and it almost invariably owes its existence to prolonged early childhood abuse, usually sexual, and of sickening severity. Nicholas Humphrey and I investigated MPD several years ago [ Speaking for Our Selves: An Assessment of Multiple Personality Disorder, Raritan , 9, pp. 68-98] and found it to be a complex phenomenon that extends far beyond individual brains and the sufferers.

Illinois has moved to discipline a prominent psychiatrist accused of convincing a patient that she was a child molester, a cannibal who ate human flesh meatloaf and the high priestess of a satanic cult.

Dissociative identity disorder (formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder or MPD) is defined in the DSM-IV-TR as the presence of two or more personality states or distinct identities that repeatedly take control of one’s behavior. The patient has an inability to recall personal information. The extent of this lack of recall is too great to be explained by normal forgetfulness. The disorder cannot be due to the direct physical effects of a general medical condition or substance. [1]

DID entails a failure to integrate certain aspects of memory, consciousness and identity. Patients experience frequent gaps in their memory for their personal history, past and present. Patients with DID report having severe physical and sexual abuse, especially during childhood. The reports of patients with DID are often validated by objective evidence. [1]

.the evidence is now voluminous that there are not a handful or a hundred but thousands of cases of MPD diagnosed today, and it almost invariably owes its existence to prolonged early childhood abuse, usually sexual, and of sickening severity. Nicholas Humphrey and I investigated MPD several years ago [ Speaking for Our Selves: An Assessment of Multiple Personality Disorder, Raritan , 9, pp. 68-98] and found it to be a complex phenomenon that extends far beyond individual brains and the sufferers.

Illinois has moved to discipline a prominent psychiatrist accused of convincing a patient that she was a child molester, a cannibal who ate human flesh meatloaf and the high priestess of a satanic cult.

From a psychological perspective, dissociation is a protective activation of altered states of consciousness in reaction to overwhelming psychological trauma. After the patient returns to baseline, access to the dissociative information is diminished. Psychiatrists have theorized that the memories are encoded in the mind but are not conscious, ie, they have been repressed.

The essential feature of dissociative amnesia is an inability to recall important personal information that is more extensive than can be explained by normal forgetfulness. Remembering such information is usually traumatic or produces stress.

How would you like a stronger immune system or better sleep? Action between the sheets can help you get all of this and more.

Red, itchy, and scaly skin? Discover common skin conditions like psoriasis, rashes, and more in the collection of medical photos.

Previously known as multiple personality disorder, dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a condition in which a person has more than one distinct identity or personality state. At least two of these personalities repeatedly assert themselves to control the affected person''''s behavior. Each personality state has a distinct name, past, identity, and self-image.

Because the alters alternate in controlling the patient''''s consciousness and behavior, the affected patient experiences long gaps in memory gaps that far exceed typical episodes of forgetting that occur in those unaffected by DID.

How would you like a stronger immune system or better sleep? Action between the sheets can help you get all of this and more.

Red, itchy, and scaly skin? Discover common skin conditions like psoriasis, rashes, and more in the collection of medical photos.

9

Dissociative identity disorder (formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder or MPD) is defined in the DSM-IV-TR as the presence of two or more personality states or distinct identities that repeatedly take control of one’s behavior. The patient has an inability to recall personal information. The extent of this lack of recall is too great to be explained by normal forgetfulness. The disorder cannot be due to the direct physical effects of a general medical condition or substance. [1]

DID entails a failure to integrate certain aspects of memory, consciousness and identity. Patients experience frequent gaps in their memory for their personal history, past and present. Patients with DID report having severe physical and sexual abuse, especially during childhood. The reports of patients with DID are often validated by objective evidence. [1]

10

Dissociative identity disorder (formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder or MPD) is defined in the DSM-IV-TR as the presence of two or more personality states or distinct identities that repeatedly take control of one’s behavior. The patient has an inability to recall personal information. The extent of this lack of recall is too great to be explained by normal forgetfulness. The disorder cannot be due to the direct physical effects of a general medical condition or substance. [1]

DID entails a failure to integrate certain aspects of memory, consciousness and identity. Patients experience frequent gaps in their memory for their personal history, past and present. Patients with DID report having severe physical and sexual abuse, especially during childhood. The reports of patients with DID are often validated by objective evidence. [1]

.the evidence is now voluminous that there are not a handful or a hundred but thousands of cases of MPD diagnosed today, and it almost invariably owes its existence to prolonged early childhood abuse, usually sexual, and of sickening severity. Nicholas Humphrey and I investigated MPD several years ago [ Speaking for Our Selves: An Assessment of Multiple Personality Disorder, Raritan , 9, pp. 68-98] and found it to be a complex phenomenon that extends far beyond individual brains and the sufferers.

Illinois has moved to discipline a prominent psychiatrist accused of convincing a patient that she was a child molester, a cannibal who ate human flesh meatloaf and the high priestess of a satanic cult.

From a psychological perspective, dissociation is a protective activation of altered states of consciousness in reaction to overwhelming psychological trauma. After the patient returns to baseline, access to the dissociative information is diminished. Psychiatrists have theorized that the memories are encoded in the mind but are not conscious, ie, they have been repressed.

The essential feature of dissociative amnesia is an inability to recall important personal information that is more extensive than can be explained by normal forgetfulness. Remembering such information is usually traumatic or produces stress.

How would you like a stronger immune system or better sleep? Action between the sheets can help you get all of this and more.

Red, itchy, and scaly skin? Discover common skin conditions like psoriasis, rashes, and more in the collection of medical photos.

Previously known as multiple personality disorder, dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a condition in which a person has more than one distinct identity or personality state. At least two of these personalities repeatedly assert themselves to control the affected person''s behavior. Each personality state has a distinct name, past, identity, and self-image.

Because the alters alternate in controlling the patient''s consciousness and behavior, the affected patient experiences long gaps in memory gaps that far exceed typical episodes of forgetting that occur in those unaffected by DID.

How would you like a stronger immune system or better sleep? Action between the sheets can help you get all of this and more.

Red, itchy, and scaly skin? Discover common skin conditions like psoriasis, rashes, and more in the collection of medical photos.

11

Do some research to find a case study of somebody with the disorder and present material on a real person living with it. There's a book called "Suffer the Child" by Judith Spencer if you have the time to read it. It's about a woman who grew up in a Satanic Cult and was sexually abused - she presented with hundreds of personalities. You should also present some material on the fact that this is a HIGHLY controversial illness, and that many psychotherapists do not believe it is a real disorder at all. Go into details as to what the arguments on both sides are (specifically that the only people who have the disorder have it suggested to them by others and that these individuals are almost always victims of extreme abuse). This should take longer than five minutes.

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You can try the DSM-IV-TR Casebook. It may be at your local book store. Best of luck to you and I hope that this was helpful!

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Dissociative identity disorder (formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder or MPD) is defined in the DSM-IV-TR as the presence of two or more personality states or distinct identities that repeatedly take control of one’s behavior. The patient has an inability to recall personal information. The extent of this lack of recall is too great to be explained by normal forgetfulness. The disorder cannot be due to the direct physical effects of a general medical condition or substance. [1]

DID entails a failure to integrate certain aspects of memory, consciousness and identity. Patients experience frequent gaps in their memory for their personal history, past and present. Patients with DID report having severe physical and sexual abuse, especially during childhood. The reports of patients with DID are often validated by objective evidence. [1]

.the evidence is now voluminous that there are not a handful or a hundred but thousands of cases of MPD diagnosed today, and it almost invariably owes its existence to prolonged early childhood abuse, usually sexual, and of sickening severity. Nicholas Humphrey and I investigated MPD several years ago [ Speaking for Our Selves: An Assessment of Multiple Personality Disorder, Raritan , 9, pp. 68-98] and found it to be a complex phenomenon that extends far beyond individual brains and the sufferers.

Illinois has moved to discipline a prominent psychiatrist accused of convincing a patient that she was a child molester, a cannibal who ate human flesh meatloaf and the high priestess of a satanic cult.

From a psychological perspective, dissociation is a protective activation of altered states of consciousness in reaction to overwhelming psychological trauma. After the patient returns to baseline, access to the dissociative information is diminished. Psychiatrists have theorized that the memories are encoded in the mind but are not conscious, ie, they have been repressed.

The essential feature of dissociative amnesia is an inability to recall important personal information that is more extensive than can be explained by normal forgetfulness. Remembering such information is usually traumatic or produces stress.

How would you like a stronger immune system or better sleep? Action between the sheets can help you get all of this and more.

Red, itchy, and scaly skin? Discover common skin conditions like psoriasis, rashes, and more in the collection of medical photos.

Previously known as multiple personality disorder, dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a condition in which a person has more than one distinct identity or personality state. At least two of these personalities repeatedly assert themselves to control the affected person''''''''s behavior. Each personality state has a distinct name, past, identity, and self-image.

Because the alters alternate in controlling the patient''''''''s consciousness and behavior, the affected patient experiences long gaps in memory gaps that far exceed typical episodes of forgetting that occur in those unaffected by DID.

How would you like a stronger immune system or better sleep? Action between the sheets can help you get all of this and more.

Red, itchy, and scaly skin? Discover common skin conditions like psoriasis, rashes, and more in the collection of medical photos.

Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written for the health care professional.

People are always surprised to hear that I’ve always wanted to be a physician. It’s just something I’ve always known, ever since I was a young child..

14

Dissociative identity disorder (formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder or MPD) is defined in the DSM-IV-TR as the presence of two or more personality states or distinct identities that repeatedly take control of one’s behavior. The patient has an inability to recall personal information. The extent of this lack of recall is too great to be explained by normal forgetfulness. The disorder cannot be due to the direct physical effects of a general medical condition or substance. [1]

DID entails a failure to integrate certain aspects of memory, consciousness and identity. Patients experience frequent gaps in their memory for their personal history, past and present. Patients with DID report having severe physical and sexual abuse, especially during childhood. The reports of patients with DID are often validated by objective evidence. [1]

.the evidence is now voluminous that there are not a handful or a hundred but thousands of cases of MPD diagnosed today, and it almost invariably owes its existence to prolonged early childhood abuse, usually sexual, and of sickening severity. Nicholas Humphrey and I investigated MPD several years ago [ Speaking for Our Selves: An Assessment of Multiple Personality Disorder, Raritan , 9, pp. 68-98] and found it to be a complex phenomenon that extends far beyond individual brains and the sufferers.

Illinois has moved to discipline a prominent psychiatrist accused of convincing a patient that she was a child molester, a cannibal who ate human flesh meatloaf and the high priestess of a satanic cult.

From a psychological perspective, dissociation is a protective activation of altered states of consciousness in reaction to overwhelming psychological trauma. After the patient returns to baseline, access to the dissociative information is diminished. Psychiatrists have theorized that the memories are encoded in the mind but are not conscious, ie, they have been repressed.

The essential feature of dissociative amnesia is an inability to recall important personal information that is more extensive than can be explained by normal forgetfulness. Remembering such information is usually traumatic or produces stress.

How would you like a stronger immune system or better sleep? Action between the sheets can help you get all of this and more.

Red, itchy, and scaly skin? Discover common skin conditions like psoriasis, rashes, and more in the collection of medical photos.

Previously known as multiple personality disorder, dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a condition in which a person has more than one distinct identity or personality state. At least two of these personalities repeatedly assert themselves to control the affected person's behavior. Each personality state has a distinct name, past, identity, and self-image.

Because the alters alternate in controlling the patient's consciousness and behavior, the affected patient experiences long gaps in memory gaps that far exceed typical episodes of forgetting that occur in those unaffected by DID.