Тема: PRB Editors' Suggestions - American Physical Society

Quantum Mechanics and Consciousness: A Causal Correspondence Theory Ian J. Thompson Physics Department, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH, U.K

2

In the 1890s, Planck was able to derive the blackbody spectrum which was later used to avoid the classical ultraviolet catastrophe by making the unorthodox assumption that, in the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter , energy could only be exchanged in discrete units which he called quanta. Planck postulated a direct proportionality between the frequency of radiation and the quantum of energy at that frequency. The proportionality constant, h , is now called Planck''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s constant in his honor.

In 1905, Einstein explained certain features of the photoelectric effect by assuming that Planck''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s energy quanta were actual particles, which were later dubbed photons.

Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small. It explains the behaviour of matter and its interactions with energy on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles.

Many aspects of quantum mechanics are counterintuitive and can seem paradoxical , because they describe behaviour quite different from that seen at larger length scales. In the words of quantum physicist Richard Feynman , quantum mechanics deals with "nature as She is – absurd". [3] For example, the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics means that the more closely one pins down one measurement (such as the position of a particle), the less accurate another measurement pertaining to the same particle (such as its momentum ) must become.

Physical systems are divided into types according to their unchanging (or ‘state-independent’) properties, and the state of a system at a time consists of a complete specification of those of its properties that change with time (its ‘state-dependent’ properties). To give a complete description of a system, then, we need to say what type of system it is and what its state is at each moment in its history.

A structure is a set of elements on which certain operations and relations are defined, a mathematical structure is just a structure in which the elements are mathematical objects (numbers, sets, vectors) and the operations mathematical ones, and a model is a mathematical structure used to represent some physically significant structure in the world.

Classical physics, the body of physics developed until about the turn of the 20th century, cannot account for the behavior of matter and light at extremely small scales. The branch of physics concerned with atomic and subatomic systems is known as quantum mechanics. Its aim is to account for the properties of molecules and atoms and their even tinier constituents, such as electrons, protons, neutrons, and quarks. Quantum mechanics describes how these particles interact with each other and with light, X-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of electromagnetic radiation.

We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

This article surveys the various ways philosophers have attempted to interpret Everett. To begin, the standard interpretation, as well as its attendant problems, is discussed briefly. Following that, the bare theory, the single and many minds theories, and versions of a many worlds theory are discussed. The article closes by discussing two relational interpretations of Everett.

Before beginning to survey the various ways philosophers have attempted to interpret Everett, we must address the question of whether or not there even are rival interpretations of Everett. Some of the most influential physicists and philosophers working on EQM have either taken it as fact (DeWitt 1970) or explicitly argued (Deutsch 2010; Wallace 2012) that there is only one “interpretation” of EQM: some version of the many worlds interpretation [MWI].

The development of quantum mechanics in the first decades of the twentieth century came as a shock to many physicists. Today, despite the great successes of quantum mechanics, arguments continue about its meaning, and its future.

Then in the 1920s, according to theories of Louis de Broglie and Erwin Schrödinger, it appeared that electrons, which had always been recognized as particles, under some circumstances behaved as waves. In order to account for the energies of the stable states of atoms, physicists had to give up the notion that electrons in atoms are little Newtonian planets in orbit around the atomic nucleus. Electrons in atoms are better described as waves, fitting around the nucleus like sound waves fitting into an organ pipe. 1 The world’s categories had become all muddled.

The Copenhagen interpretation was the first general attempt to understand the world of atoms as this is represented by quantum mechanics. The founding father was mainly the Danish physicist Niels Bohr, but also Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and other physicists made important contributions to the overall understanding of the atomic world that is associated with the name of the capital of Denmark.

At this point Niels Bohr entered the scene and soon became the leading physicist on atoms. In 1913 Bohr, visiting Rutherford in Manchester, put forward a mathematical model of the atom which provided the first theoretical support for Rutherford''s model and could explain the emission spectrum of the hydrogen atom (the Balmer series). The theory was based on two postulates:

Quantum mechanics is one of the brand new ideas to emerge in physics in the 20 th century. But is it something creationists should believe? I argue “yes” for two reasons:

Although quantum mechanics is rather outside the scope of our ministry, since it concerns operational science rather than origins , we do receive questions about QM quite often. And we also sometimes receive requests to sponsor various critics of this field. This paper tries to summarize, with as little technical detail as possible, why QM was developed, the overwhelming evidence for it, as well as the lack of any viable alternative. Finally, the pragmatic issue: jumping on an anti-QM bandwagon would just make our job harder and provide not the least benefit to the creation cause.

As the theory of the atom, quantum mechanics is perhaps the most successful theory in the history of science. It enables physicists, chemists, and technicians to.

4

In the 1890s, Planck was able to derive the blackbody spectrum which was later used to avoid the classical ultraviolet catastrophe by making the unorthodox assumption that, in the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter , energy could only be exchanged in discrete units which he called quanta. Planck postulated a direct proportionality between the frequency of radiation and the quantum of energy at that frequency. The proportionality constant, h , is now called Planck''''s constant in his honor.

In 1905, Einstein explained certain features of the photoelectric effect by assuming that Planck''''s energy quanta were actual particles, which were later dubbed photons.

Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small. It explains the behaviour of matter and its interactions with energy on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles.

Many aspects of quantum mechanics are counterintuitive and can seem paradoxical , because they describe behaviour quite different from that seen at larger length scales. In the words of quantum physicist Richard Feynman , quantum mechanics deals with "nature as She is – absurd". [3] For example, the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics means that the more closely one pins down one measurement (such as the position of a particle), the less accurate another measurement pertaining to the same particle (such as its momentum ) must become.

Physical systems are divided into types according to their unchanging (or ‘state-independent’) properties, and the state of a system at a time consists of a complete specification of those of its properties that change with time (its ‘state-dependent’ properties). To give a complete description of a system, then, we need to say what type of system it is and what its state is at each moment in its history.

A structure is a set of elements on which certain operations and relations are defined, a mathematical structure is just a structure in which the elements are mathematical objects (numbers, sets, vectors) and the operations mathematical ones, and a model is a mathematical structure used to represent some physically significant structure in the world.

Start at the physics department of a local university. But you ll need to convince them it s worth their time, and that you re not just asking them to do your homework for you. They, or someone in industry, may be willing to do this on a consulting basis. If the problems are interesting enough, they may do it just for fun.

If you want full details on this subject, The Elegant Universe By Brian Greene is a fantastic book that discusses this topic Simply, the incompatibility between the two theories is that the use in extremes. Firstly, relativity generally deals with the massive, and quantum mechanics with the macroscopic. However, when these two are combined, the equations cannot be used together (i don t really know the maths of it, but i think you get stupid answers like infinity). An example of this is in the first few moments after the big bang, and in black holes, where there are very massive objects packed into macroscopic areas. Secondly, quantum mechanics predicts that on scales of less than planck length (i.e. unimaginably small) the fabric of spacetime would not be flat, but covered in bumps and ripples and trenches etc. (think of fractals, if you know what they are). This would go against many of the assumptions of general relativity. To understand why string theory solves this problem, you first need to know, that things can only be observed at small scales by thing that are small - our eyes use photons (light particles) but these are too big at these small scales for the imperfections to show up. However, according to quantum mechanics, you could use increasingly small particles with increasingly high energy to detect the imperfections. This works because particles are zero-dimentional and point-like. With strings, however, they are one-dimentional, and if they are the smallest constituents of the universe, then you cannot observe any imperfections smaller than they are, so if they do exist, they would have no effect on anything else. This is a simplified explanation, and i am not sure of all the details, but i hope it helps.

In the 1890s, Planck was able to derive the blackbody spectrum which was later used to avoid the classical ultraviolet catastrophe by making the unorthodox assumption that, in the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter , energy could only be exchanged in discrete units which he called quanta. Planck postulated a direct proportionality between the frequency of radiation and the quantum of energy at that frequency. The proportionality constant, h , is now called Planck''''''''''''''''s constant in his honor.

In 1905, Einstein explained certain features of the photoelectric effect by assuming that Planck''''''''''''''''s energy quanta were actual particles, which were later dubbed photons.

Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small. It explains the behaviour of matter and its interactions with energy on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles.

Many aspects of quantum mechanics are counterintuitive and can seem paradoxical , because they describe behaviour quite different from that seen at larger length scales. In the words of quantum physicist Richard Feynman , quantum mechanics deals with "nature as She is – absurd". [3] For example, the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics means that the more closely one pins down one measurement (such as the position of a particle), the less accurate another measurement pertaining to the same particle (such as its momentum ) must become.

Physical systems are divided into types according to their unchanging (or ‘state-independent’) properties, and the state of a system at a time consists of a complete specification of those of its properties that change with time (its ‘state-dependent’ properties). To give a complete description of a system, then, we need to say what type of system it is and what its state is at each moment in its history.

A structure is a set of elements on which certain operations and relations are defined, a mathematical structure is just a structure in which the elements are mathematical objects (numbers, sets, vectors) and the operations mathematical ones, and a model is a mathematical structure used to represent some physically significant structure in the world.

Classical physics, the body of physics developed until about the turn of the 20th century, cannot account for the behavior of matter and light at extremely small scales. The branch of physics concerned with atomic and subatomic systems is known as quantum mechanics. Its aim is to account for the properties of molecules and atoms and their even tinier constituents, such as electrons, protons, neutrons, and quarks. Quantum mechanics describes how these particles interact with each other and with light, X-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of electromagnetic radiation.

We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

This article surveys the various ways philosophers have attempted to interpret Everett. To begin, the standard interpretation, as well as its attendant problems, is discussed briefly. Following that, the bare theory, the single and many minds theories, and versions of a many worlds theory are discussed. The article closes by discussing two relational interpretations of Everett.

Before beginning to survey the various ways philosophers have attempted to interpret Everett, we must address the question of whether or not there even are rival interpretations of Everett. Some of the most influential physicists and philosophers working on EQM have either taken it as fact (DeWitt 1970) or explicitly argued (Deutsch 2010; Wallace 2012) that there is only one “interpretation” of EQM: some version of the many worlds interpretation [MWI].

In the 1890s, Planck was able to derive the blackbody spectrum which was later used to avoid the classical ultraviolet catastrophe by making the unorthodox assumption that, in the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter , energy could only be exchanged in discrete units which he called quanta. Planck postulated a direct proportionality between the frequency of radiation and the quantum of energy at that frequency. The proportionality constant, h , is now called Planck''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s constant in his honor.

In 1905, Einstein explained certain features of the photoelectric effect by assuming that Planck''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s energy quanta were actual particles, which were later dubbed photons.

Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small. It explains the behaviour of matter and its interactions with energy on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles.

Many aspects of quantum mechanics are counterintuitive and can seem paradoxical , because they describe behaviour quite different from that seen at larger length scales. In the words of quantum physicist Richard Feynman , quantum mechanics deals with "nature as She is – absurd". [3] For example, the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics means that the more closely one pins down one measurement (such as the position of a particle), the less accurate another measurement pertaining to the same particle (such as its momentum ) must become.

Physical systems are divided into types according to their unchanging (or ‘state-independent’) properties, and the state of a system at a time consists of a complete specification of those of its properties that change with time (its ‘state-dependent’ properties). To give a complete description of a system, then, we need to say what type of system it is and what its state is at each moment in its history.

A structure is a set of elements on which certain operations and relations are defined, a mathematical structure is just a structure in which the elements are mathematical objects (numbers, sets, vectors) and the operations mathematical ones, and a model is a mathematical structure used to represent some physically significant structure in the world.

Classical physics, the body of physics developed until about the turn of the 20th century, cannot account for the behavior of matter and light at extremely small scales. The branch of physics concerned with atomic and subatomic systems is known as quantum mechanics. Its aim is to account for the properties of molecules and atoms and their even tinier constituents, such as electrons, protons, neutrons, and quarks. Quantum mechanics describes how these particles interact with each other and with light, X-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of electromagnetic radiation.

We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

This article surveys the various ways philosophers have attempted to interpret Everett. To begin, the standard interpretation, as well as its attendant problems, is discussed briefly. Following that, the bare theory, the single and many minds theories, and versions of a many worlds theory are discussed. The article closes by discussing two relational interpretations of Everett.

Before beginning to survey the various ways philosophers have attempted to interpret Everett, we must address the question of whether or not there even are rival interpretations of Everett. Some of the most influential physicists and philosophers working on EQM have either taken it as fact (DeWitt 1970) or explicitly argued (Deutsch 2010; Wallace 2012) that there is only one “interpretation” of EQM: some version of the many worlds interpretation [MWI].

The development of quantum mechanics in the first decades of the twentieth century came as a shock to many physicists. Today, despite the great successes of quantum mechanics, arguments continue about its meaning, and its future.

Then in the 1920s, according to theories of Louis de Broglie and Erwin Schrödinger, it appeared that electrons, which had always been recognized as particles, under some circumstances behaved as waves. In order to account for the energies of the stable states of atoms, physicists had to give up the notion that electrons in atoms are little Newtonian planets in orbit around the atomic nucleus. Electrons in atoms are better described as waves, fitting around the nucleus like sound waves fitting into an organ pipe. 1 The world’s categories had become all muddled.

The Copenhagen interpretation was the first general attempt to understand the world of atoms as this is represented by quantum mechanics. The founding father was mainly the Danish physicist Niels Bohr, but also Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and other physicists made important contributions to the overall understanding of the atomic world that is associated with the name of the capital of Denmark.

At this point Niels Bohr entered the scene and soon became the leading physicist on atoms. In 1913 Bohr, visiting Rutherford in Manchester, put forward a mathematical model of the atom which provided the first theoretical support for Rutherford''''''''s model and could explain the emission spectrum of the hydrogen atom (the Balmer series). The theory was based on two postulates:

Quantum mechanics is one of the brand new ideas to emerge in physics in the 20 th century. But is it something creationists should believe? I argue “yes” for two reasons:

Although quantum mechanics is rather outside the scope of our ministry, since it concerns operational science rather than origins , we do receive questions about QM quite often. And we also sometimes receive requests to sponsor various critics of this field. This paper tries to summarize, with as little technical detail as possible, why QM was developed, the overwhelming evidence for it, as well as the lack of any viable alternative. Finally, the pragmatic issue: jumping on an anti-QM bandwagon would just make our job harder and provide not the least benefit to the creation cause.

The KINDLE VERSIONS of the top three books below are PRINT REPLICA (instead of the old poor quality wrapping-text versions, which ruined the formatting). These new versions look exactly the same as the paperbacks. They're basically pdfs in kindle form. You can read them on your computer with the free kindle app.

I am trying to make the wrapping-text versions be available too, for those who favor that. But Amazon is having trouble with this. Hopefully it will be resolved soon.

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In the 1890s, Planck was able to derive the blackbody spectrum which was later used to avoid the classical ultraviolet catastrophe by making the unorthodox assumption that, in the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter , energy could only be exchanged in discrete units which he called quanta. Planck postulated a direct proportionality between the frequency of radiation and the quantum of energy at that frequency. The proportionality constant, h , is now called Planck''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s constant in his honor.

In 1905, Einstein explained certain features of the photoelectric effect by assuming that Planck''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s energy quanta were actual particles, which were later dubbed photons.

Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small. It explains the behaviour of matter and its interactions with energy on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles.

Many aspects of quantum mechanics are counterintuitive and can seem paradoxical , because they describe behaviour quite different from that seen at larger length scales. In the words of quantum physicist Richard Feynman , quantum mechanics deals with "nature as She is – absurd". [3] For example, the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics means that the more closely one pins down one measurement (such as the position of a particle), the less accurate another measurement pertaining to the same particle (such as its momentum ) must become.

Physical systems are divided into types according to their unchanging (or ‘state-independent’) properties, and the state of a system at a time consists of a complete specification of those of its properties that change with time (its ‘state-dependent’ properties). To give a complete description of a system, then, we need to say what type of system it is and what its state is at each moment in its history.

A structure is a set of elements on which certain operations and relations are defined, a mathematical structure is just a structure in which the elements are mathematical objects (numbers, sets, vectors) and the operations mathematical ones, and a model is a mathematical structure used to represent some physically significant structure in the world.

Classical physics, the body of physics developed until about the turn of the 20th century, cannot account for the behavior of matter and light at extremely small scales. The branch of physics concerned with atomic and subatomic systems is known as quantum mechanics. Its aim is to account for the properties of molecules and atoms and their even tinier constituents, such as electrons, protons, neutrons, and quarks. Quantum mechanics describes how these particles interact with each other and with light, X-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of electromagnetic radiation.

We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

This article surveys the various ways philosophers have attempted to interpret Everett. To begin, the standard interpretation, as well as its attendant problems, is discussed briefly. Following that, the bare theory, the single and many minds theories, and versions of a many worlds theory are discussed. The article closes by discussing two relational interpretations of Everett.

Before beginning to survey the various ways philosophers have attempted to interpret Everett, we must address the question of whether or not there even are rival interpretations of Everett. Some of the most influential physicists and philosophers working on EQM have either taken it as fact (DeWitt 1970) or explicitly argued (Deutsch 2010; Wallace 2012) that there is only one “interpretation” of EQM: some version of the many worlds interpretation [MWI].

The development of quantum mechanics in the first decades of the twentieth century came as a shock to many physicists. Today, despite the great successes of quantum mechanics, arguments continue about its meaning, and its future.

Then in the 1920s, according to theories of Louis de Broglie and Erwin Schrödinger, it appeared that electrons, which had always been recognized as particles, under some circumstances behaved as waves. In order to account for the energies of the stable states of atoms, physicists had to give up the notion that electrons in atoms are little Newtonian planets in orbit around the atomic nucleus. Electrons in atoms are better described as waves, fitting around the nucleus like sound waves fitting into an organ pipe. 1 The world’s categories had become all muddled.

The Copenhagen interpretation was the first general attempt to understand the world of atoms as this is represented by quantum mechanics. The founding father was mainly the Danish physicist Niels Bohr, but also Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and other physicists made important contributions to the overall understanding of the atomic world that is associated with the name of the capital of Denmark.

At this point Niels Bohr entered the scene and soon became the leading physicist on atoms. In 1913 Bohr, visiting Rutherford in Manchester, put forward a mathematical model of the atom which provided the first theoretical support for Rutherford''''s model and could explain the emission spectrum of the hydrogen atom (the Balmer series). The theory was based on two postulates:

Quantum mechanics is one of the brand new ideas to emerge in physics in the 20 th century. But is it something creationists should believe? I argue “yes” for two reasons:

Although quantum mechanics is rather outside the scope of our ministry, since it concerns operational science rather than origins , we do receive questions about QM quite often. And we also sometimes receive requests to sponsor various critics of this field. This paper tries to summarize, with as little technical detail as possible, why QM was developed, the overwhelming evidence for it, as well as the lack of any viable alternative. Finally, the pragmatic issue: jumping on an anti-QM bandwagon would just make our job harder and provide not the least benefit to the creation cause.

10

In the 1890s, Planck was able to derive the blackbody spectrum which was later used to avoid the classical ultraviolet catastrophe by making the unorthodox assumption that, in the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter , energy could only be exchanged in discrete units which he called quanta. Planck postulated a direct proportionality between the frequency of radiation and the quantum of energy at that frequency. The proportionality constant, h , is now called Planck''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s constant in his honor.

In 1905, Einstein explained certain features of the photoelectric effect by assuming that Planck''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s energy quanta were actual particles, which were later dubbed photons.

Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small. It explains the behaviour of matter and its interactions with energy on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles.

Many aspects of quantum mechanics are counterintuitive and can seem paradoxical , because they describe behaviour quite different from that seen at larger length scales. In the words of quantum physicist Richard Feynman , quantum mechanics deals with "nature as She is – absurd". [3] For example, the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics means that the more closely one pins down one measurement (such as the position of a particle), the less accurate another measurement pertaining to the same particle (such as its momentum ) must become.

Physical systems are divided into types according to their unchanging (or ‘state-independent’) properties, and the state of a system at a time consists of a complete specification of those of its properties that change with time (its ‘state-dependent’ properties). To give a complete description of a system, then, we need to say what type of system it is and what its state is at each moment in its history.

A structure is a set of elements on which certain operations and relations are defined, a mathematical structure is just a structure in which the elements are mathematical objects (numbers, sets, vectors) and the operations mathematical ones, and a model is a mathematical structure used to represent some physically significant structure in the world.

Classical physics, the body of physics developed until about the turn of the 20th century, cannot account for the behavior of matter and light at extremely small scales. The branch of physics concerned with atomic and subatomic systems is known as quantum mechanics. Its aim is to account for the properties of molecules and atoms and their even tinier constituents, such as electrons, protons, neutrons, and quarks. Quantum mechanics describes how these particles interact with each other and with light, X-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of electromagnetic radiation.

We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

This article surveys the various ways philosophers have attempted to interpret Everett. To begin, the standard interpretation, as well as its attendant problems, is discussed briefly. Following that, the bare theory, the single and many minds theories, and versions of a many worlds theory are discussed. The article closes by discussing two relational interpretations of Everett.

Before beginning to survey the various ways philosophers have attempted to interpret Everett, we must address the question of whether or not there even are rival interpretations of Everett. Some of the most influential physicists and philosophers working on EQM have either taken it as fact (DeWitt 1970) or explicitly argued (Deutsch 2010; Wallace 2012) that there is only one “interpretation” of EQM: some version of the many worlds interpretation [MWI].

The development of quantum mechanics in the first decades of the twentieth century came as a shock to many physicists. Today, despite the great successes of quantum mechanics, arguments continue about its meaning, and its future.

Then in the 1920s, according to theories of Louis de Broglie and Erwin Schrödinger, it appeared that electrons, which had always been recognized as particles, under some circumstances behaved as waves. In order to account for the energies of the stable states of atoms, physicists had to give up the notion that electrons in atoms are little Newtonian planets in orbit around the atomic nucleus. Electrons in atoms are better described as waves, fitting around the nucleus like sound waves fitting into an organ pipe. 1 The world’s categories had become all muddled.

11

In the 1890s, Planck was able to derive the blackbody spectrum which was later used to avoid the classical ultraviolet catastrophe by making the unorthodox assumption that, in the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter , energy could only be exchanged in discrete units which he called quanta. Planck postulated a direct proportionality between the frequency of radiation and the quantum of energy at that frequency. The proportionality constant, h , is now called Planck''''''''s constant in his honor.

In 1905, Einstein explained certain features of the photoelectric effect by assuming that Planck''''''''s energy quanta were actual particles, which were later dubbed photons.

Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small. It explains the behaviour of matter and its interactions with energy on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles.

Many aspects of quantum mechanics are counterintuitive and can seem paradoxical , because they describe behaviour quite different from that seen at larger length scales. In the words of quantum physicist Richard Feynman , quantum mechanics deals with "nature as She is – absurd". [3] For example, the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics means that the more closely one pins down one measurement (such as the position of a particle), the less accurate another measurement pertaining to the same particle (such as its momentum ) must become.

Physical systems are divided into types according to their unchanging (or ‘state-independent’) properties, and the state of a system at a time consists of a complete specification of those of its properties that change with time (its ‘state-dependent’ properties). To give a complete description of a system, then, we need to say what type of system it is and what its state is at each moment in its history.

A structure is a set of elements on which certain operations and relations are defined, a mathematical structure is just a structure in which the elements are mathematical objects (numbers, sets, vectors) and the operations mathematical ones, and a model is a mathematical structure used to represent some physically significant structure in the world.

Classical physics, the body of physics developed until about the turn of the 20th century, cannot account for the behavior of matter and light at extremely small scales. The branch of physics concerned with atomic and subatomic systems is known as quantum mechanics. Its aim is to account for the properties of molecules and atoms and their even tinier constituents, such as electrons, protons, neutrons, and quarks. Quantum mechanics describes how these particles interact with each other and with light, X-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of electromagnetic radiation.

We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

12

In the 1890s, Planck was able to derive the blackbody spectrum which was later used to avoid the classical ultraviolet catastrophe by making the unorthodox assumption that, in the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter , energy could only be exchanged in discrete units which he called quanta. Planck postulated a direct proportionality between the frequency of radiation and the quantum of energy at that frequency. The proportionality constant, h , is now called Planck''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s constant in his honor.

In 1905, Einstein explained certain features of the photoelectric effect by assuming that Planck''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s energy quanta were actual particles, which were later dubbed photons.

Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small. It explains the behaviour of matter and its interactions with energy on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles.

Many aspects of quantum mechanics are counterintuitive and can seem paradoxical , because they describe behaviour quite different from that seen at larger length scales. In the words of quantum physicist Richard Feynman , quantum mechanics deals with "nature as She is – absurd". [3] For example, the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics means that the more closely one pins down one measurement (such as the position of a particle), the less accurate another measurement pertaining to the same particle (such as its momentum ) must become.

Physical systems are divided into types according to their unchanging (or ‘state-independent’) properties, and the state of a system at a time consists of a complete specification of those of its properties that change with time (its ‘state-dependent’ properties). To give a complete description of a system, then, we need to say what type of system it is and what its state is at each moment in its history.

A structure is a set of elements on which certain operations and relations are defined, a mathematical structure is just a structure in which the elements are mathematical objects (numbers, sets, vectors) and the operations mathematical ones, and a model is a mathematical structure used to represent some physically significant structure in the world.

Classical physics, the body of physics developed until about the turn of the 20th century, cannot account for the behavior of matter and light at extremely small scales. The branch of physics concerned with atomic and subatomic systems is known as quantum mechanics. Its aim is to account for the properties of molecules and atoms and their even tinier constituents, such as electrons, protons, neutrons, and quarks. Quantum mechanics describes how these particles interact with each other and with light, X-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of electromagnetic radiation.

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This article surveys the various ways philosophers have attempted to interpret Everett. To begin, the standard interpretation, as well as its attendant problems, is discussed briefly. Following that, the bare theory, the single and many minds theories, and versions of a many worlds theory are discussed. The article closes by discussing two relational interpretations of Everett.

Before beginning to survey the various ways philosophers have attempted to interpret Everett, we must address the question of whether or not there even are rival interpretations of Everett. Some of the most influential physicists and philosophers working on EQM have either taken it as fact (DeWitt 1970) or explicitly argued (Deutsch 2010; Wallace 2012) that there is only one “interpretation” of EQM: some version of the many worlds interpretation [MWI].

The development of quantum mechanics in the first decades of the twentieth century came as a shock to many physicists. Today, despite the great successes of quantum mechanics, arguments continue about its meaning, and its future.

Then in the 1920s, according to theories of Louis de Broglie and Erwin Schrödinger, it appeared that electrons, which had always been recognized as particles, under some circumstances behaved as waves. In order to account for the energies of the stable states of atoms, physicists had to give up the notion that electrons in atoms are little Newtonian planets in orbit around the atomic nucleus. Electrons in atoms are better described as waves, fitting around the nucleus like sound waves fitting into an organ pipe. 1 The world’s categories had become all muddled.

The Copenhagen interpretation was the first general attempt to understand the world of atoms as this is represented by quantum mechanics. The founding father was mainly the Danish physicist Niels Bohr, but also Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and other physicists made important contributions to the overall understanding of the atomic world that is associated with the name of the capital of Denmark.

At this point Niels Bohr entered the scene and soon became the leading physicist on atoms. In 1913 Bohr, visiting Rutherford in Manchester, put forward a mathematical model of the atom which provided the first theoretical support for Rutherford's model and could explain the emission spectrum of the hydrogen atom (the Balmer series). The theory was based on two postulates:

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In the 1890s, Planck was able to derive the blackbody spectrum which was later used to avoid the classical ultraviolet catastrophe by making the unorthodox assumption that, in the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter , energy could only be exchanged in discrete units which he called quanta. Planck postulated a direct proportionality between the frequency of radiation and the quantum of energy at that frequency. The proportionality constant, h , is now called Planck's constant in his honor.

In 1905, Einstein explained certain features of the photoelectric effect by assuming that Planck's energy quanta were actual particles, which were later dubbed photons.

In the 1890s, Planck was able to derive the blackbody spectrum which was later used to avoid the classical ultraviolet catastrophe by making the unorthodox assumption that, in the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter , energy could only be exchanged in discrete units which he called quanta. Planck postulated a direct proportionality between the frequency of radiation and the quantum of energy at that frequency. The proportionality constant, h , is now called Planck''s constant in his honor.

In 1905, Einstein explained certain features of the photoelectric effect by assuming that Planck''s energy quanta were actual particles, which were later dubbed photons.

Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small. It explains the behaviour of matter and its interactions with energy on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles.

Many aspects of quantum mechanics are counterintuitive and can seem paradoxical , because they describe behaviour quite different from that seen at larger length scales. In the words of quantum physicist Richard Feynman , quantum mechanics deals with "nature as She is – absurd". [3] For example, the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics means that the more closely one pins down one measurement (such as the position of a particle), the less accurate another measurement pertaining to the same particle (such as its momentum ) must become.