Тема: rss - The Nerdist

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Much of the information was compiled from various notes, letters, papers, drafts, etc. by Tolkien s son Christopher. Additional information is now summarized in the irregularly published magazines "Vinyar Tengwar" and "Parma Eldalamberon". (Here s a sample issue of "Vinyar Tengwar": http://www.elvish.org/VT/sample.html ) Tolkien actually left quite a number of texts on numerous aspects of his Elven languages. E.g. in one letter (the "Plotz Letter") he explained Quenya cases, in another text he layed out conjugation rules,. And he wrote word lists. He started to put them together for the Appendix of LotR, but they were deemed to extensive. But the pronunciation is actually included in Appendix E in LotR. (In my (English) copy (Harper Collins, paperback, 50th anniversary edition) it s on pages 1113-1117.) It s true that some knowledge had to be extrapolated from existing texts, because Tolkien never put together a definite guide. His languages weren t meant to be ever completed, they were a work in progress. This can, for example, be seen in the various predecessors that his two main Elven languages have. (E.g. Goldogrin became Noldorin became Sindarin.) The people extrapolating are/were generally linguists, too. In great fan resources the source of a word/grammar rule tends to be mentioned. E.g., if you look at Helge Fauskanger s Quenya word lists, http://folk.uib.no/hnohf/wordlists.htm , you can find sources for pretty much all words listed there. One possible source you could consult is the book "The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien". http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/letters/letters/description.htm But you can also find a lot of information in the more regular stuff, like LotR, Silmarillion, Unfinished Tales, and the 12 volumes of The History of Middle-Earth (which give an insight into the development of the stories and the world itself). The History of Middle-Earth 5, "The Lost Road and other Writings" also includes "The Etymologies", a great resource for all interested in Tolkien s linguistic work. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Etymologies_%28Tolkien%29 And if you read any of the other books, you can find a lot of individual bits that can be pieced together (if you re patient enough). For example, from "Unfinished Tales" (my copy: Houghton Mifflin, First American Edition, 1980; page 266f): "Celeborn [.] was derived from the ancient adjectival form ornā uprising, tall , rather than from the related noun ornē tree. (Ornē was originally applied to straighter and more slender trees such as birches, whereas stouter, more spreading trees such as oaks and beeches were called in the ancient language galadā great growth ; but this distinction was not always observed in Quenya and disappeared in Sindarin, where all trees came to be called galadh, and orn fell out of common use, surviving only in verse [.]" As for "how J.R.R. Tolkien would say it", there are recordings of him speaking both Quenya and Sindarin. (For this record: http://tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Poems_and_Songs_of_Middle_Earth ) "A Elbereth Gilthoniel", a Sindarin poem: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MdfYy4gW9L4 "Namárie", a Quenya poem: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6de_SbVUVfA Just please note that the lyrics posted for "Namárie" aren t accurate in all places, the recording is older than the later text. Correctly the second and third lines that he cites are: Inyar únóti nar ve rámar aldaron! Inyar ve lintë yulmar vánier http://folk.uib.no/hnohf/namarie.htm Additionally, here s a glimpse at Tolkien s productivity, various scans of documents that include the Elven script Tengwar: http://s220.photobucket.com/user/dts_tengwar/profile/ For further info on the documents see: http://www.forodrim.org/daeron/mdtci.html

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Using other people’s research or ideas without giving them due credit is plagiarism. Since BibMe™ makes it easy to create citations, build bibliographies and acknowledge other people’s work, there is no excuse to plagiarize. Don’t be a thief—save your grade, use BibMe™ and give credit to those who deserve it!

Participant’s Gender: female Status Senior Major(s):psych Minor(s): art Complete the following: 1. Where do you tend to buy your textbooks from? Online (please specify) whoever has the lowest price 2. How much did you spend for textbook(s) this semester?(e) Between $200 – 250 3. What textbook edition do you try buying? (b) Older Editions 4. The most expensive textbook you ever paid for was $ 189.48 5. The least expensive textbook you ever paid for was $ 2.09 6. How many classes are you currently taking? 5 7. Of those classes, how many classes have you bought textbooks for? 4 8. From the choices below, assume the textbook is for the same price. Which would you buy? (b) Paperback 9. For a course that I am majoring in, I would not pay for a textbook that is (c) Over $75 10. For a non-major course, I would not pay for a textbook that is (b) Over $50 (1) Strongly Disagree // (2) Disagree // (3) Neutral // (4) Agree // (5) Strongly Agree 1. Textbooks are expensive. 5 2. A textbook that comes with 3 a study guide is important to me. 3. The condition of a textbook 4 is important to me. (1) Never // (2) Rarely // (3) Sometimes // (4) Usually // (5) Always 1. I buy new textbook(s). 3 2. I buy used textbook(s). 4 3. I buy electronic/digital textbook(s). 1 4. I buy textbooks for classes I am 4 majoring in. 5. I buy textbooks for classes I am 2 minoring in. 6. I buy textbooks for classes that 3 are electives. 7. I scan/photocopy my textbooks 3 in order to save money. Please state your GPA:3.6 Comments: When i had to do a survey, it was against rules to do it via internet. Check to be sure you can use these results, otherwise hope you get a good grade.

This is the order, beginning with the most recent, in which Lisa’s Gardner’s novels were published. For the sequence within series, visit the series pages.

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Timeline. This is the order, beginning with the most recent, in which Lisa’s Gardner’s novels were published. For the sequence within series, visit the series pages.

This is the order, beginning with the most recent, in which Lisa’s Gardner’s novels were published. For the sequence within series, visit the series pages.

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Using other people’s research or ideas without giving them due credit is plagiarism. Since BibMe™ makes it easy to create citations, build bibliographies and acknowledge other people’s work, there is no excuse to plagiarize. Don’t be a thief—save your grade, use BibMe™ and give credit to those who deserve it!